Author ORCID Identifier

Document Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Educational Leadership

First Advisor

Kristine Reed


This multiple case study focused on three Native American women superintendents’ self-efficacy beliefs and the impact of the Indigenous culture on their decision making as they led their school district through the Covid 19 pandemic. Albert Bandura’s self-efficacy theory served as the underpinning theory of this study. The qualitative research design for the study relied on data gathered from individual interviews and written responses to journal prompts. All participants had at least two years of superintendent experience in public school districts during the time of the pandemic. The researcher analyzed the data through open coding/In Vivo coding. The data were then analyzed using axial coding before the data from the three participants were triangulated. The findings of this study suggest that all three participants altered their thinking to overcome their obstacles and challenges, felt validated by receiving positive feedback from staff and the school board, found success from their previous experiences, and were able to feel confident in their leadership roles through the Covid 19 pandemic. These three women did not have a single mentor figure but gathered information from many people and many sources. These Native American women were influenced by their culture to serve in these districts. The voices of these Native American women have long been excluded from education and leadership research. It is safe to say that Indigenous women will continue to play essential roles in the leadership of Indigenous people. We must better understand the experiences of these Native American women superintendents so that we can work to serve the Indigenous population better and prepare future generations of Native American leaders. I assert that studies like mine can provide essential insights into understanding leadership from Native American women's perspectives. I encourage other researchers to take steps in addressing how we can honor the experiences of these warrior women while supporting the development of future Native American women leaders in education.

Subject Categories

Educational Administration and Supervision | Educational Leadership


Beliefs, Covid 19, Leadership, Native American, Pandemic, Self-efficacy

Number of Pages



University of South Dakota



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