Author ORCID Identifier

Document Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Doug Peterson, Jongsung Yoon


Notifications on smart devices have a crucial role for the end-users to help decide their action to the information. Despite the flexible customization of notifications for the intuitive user experience, users feel overwhelmed by the number of notifications they receive daily. The nature of notifications is short-lived, but they are extremely intrusive and disengaging. While user experience and user interface are advanced, notifications have remained broken despite their complexity. In fact, the notifications have the poorest usability that users may struggle to customize notifications in their smart devices and choose to ignore them. Irrelevant notifications not only get ignored, but it causes frustration and a false sense of urgency. Notifications must become conversational rather than a default system to feel as a helpful personal assistant. Previous research has identified the positive emotional influence from conversational and relevant signages in the physical space (Kim, 2017). The primary focus of this dissertation is to enrich the current notifications on smart devices, to establish the new concept – the smart notifications with the optimized visual signals that provide intuitive (e.g., helpful, personal, and relevant) user experience, and to propose applicable smart visual notification signals. The System Usability Scale (SUS) (Brooke, 1986) and Nielsen’s Heuristic (Nielsen, 1994) were used to measure the usability and user interface design of notifications on smart devices from participants. The results of this dissertation can be applied in future research as researchers can continue developing smart notifications that are intuitive and designers can use it as a guideline to build better user interfaces.

Subject Categories

Communication | Human Factors Psychology | Medical Physiology


Intuitive User Experience, Nielsen’s Heuristic, Subjective and Objective Usability, System Usability Scale (SUS), User Interface Design, Visual Notifications

Number of Pages



University of South Dakota



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