Document Type



Media is loading

Publication Date



congenital muscular torticollis, CMT, balance, early childhood


Medicine and Health Sciences | Physical Therapy | Rehabilitation and Therapy


PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to understand the overall impact of congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) treated during infancy on postural control (i.e., balance) in children between the ages of four to six years. SUBJECTS: The study included 12 subjects (7 males; mean age = 5.80 years [SD = 0.84]). The mean age at initial evaluation for CMT was 3.63 months (SD = 1.81). Severity classifications included 10 subjects with mild CMT severity, 1 subject with early severe CMT, and 1 subject with late mild CMT. MATERIALS/METHODS: Postural control was assessed in 12 children using the Balance subscore of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test for Motor Proficiency, Second Edition(TM). Shoulder and cervical spine ranges of motion were measured to evaluate persisting asymmetries. RESULTS: The critical z analysis (-0.166) disclosed no significant difference between children treated for CMT and their typically developed age-matched peers in postural control measures. Pearson correlation (r = .214, P = .505) indicated no statistical significance between the infant classification score and childhood balance. CONCLUSION: The data indicated no significant differences in balance scores in children previously treated for CMT during infancy. Lack of significance could have resulted from a limited sample size. Further research is needed to understand the relationship between early childhood balance and increased severity of CMT at infancy. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Early identification and management of CMT are essential to the maturation of typical motor development. While the results of the study suggest that pre-school age children with a history of treatment for CMT do not show differences in balance, the risk of developmental delays is documented in the literature. The small sample size and generally low severity should be taken into consideration when interpreting results of this study and the impact of CMT on balance in early childhood.

First Advisor

Patti Berg-Poppe

Research Area

Physical Therapy