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concussion, post-cocussion syndrome, PCS, brain, brain injury


Post-concussion syndrome (PCS) occurs when symptoms specific to traumatic brain injuries such as headaches, dizziness, sensitivity to light and sound, irritability, and memory and concentration deficits last longer than three months after an initial injury. A key characteristic differentiating PCS from concussions is that an individual's symptoms gradually worsen over time. This diagnosis is highly controversial because there is not a single standardized diagnostic test or treatment proven to alleviate all symptoms in the majority of cases. The purpose of this study is to examine commonalities between individuals who experience post-concussion syndrome and what treatments are proven to help them. Consideration of current studies indicates that the occurrence of seizures, loss of consciousness, and being under the influence of alcohol at the time of injury may increase the probability of persistent symptoms. Similarly, more severe head injuries and double concussions also significantly increase the likelihood of developing PCS. Cognitive-behavioral therapy will be discussed as one of the few treatments that has been recognized as an effective treatment by most researchers. Furthermore, more research is necessary to determine what factors cause an individual to obtain post-concussive syndromes before treatments can be evaluated and understood.

First Advisor

Musheera Anis

Research Area

Health Sciences