Date of Award

Spring 3-5-2022

Document Type

Oral Presentation/Poster

Degree Name

Doctor of Occupational Therapy (OTD)


Health Science

Faculty Mentor

Dr. Shana Cerny

Second Advisor

Dr. Karen Hebert


attention/deficit-hyperactivity disorder, stigma, bias, occupational therapy, school-based professionals, ASQ, ADHD-IRAP, ADHD, IRAP

Subject Categories

Disability and Equity in Education | Occupational Therapy


This study used the Attention/Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Stigma Questionnaire (ASQ) and the ADHD Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (ADHD-IRAP) among school-based professionals, including occupational therapists. 24 occupational therapists and 23 other school professionals completed demographic questions and the ASQ. 22 completed scores were used for the ADHD-IRAP results. Other school professionals (36.17%) reported having experience with children with ADHD outside of their professional capacity more than occupational therapists (23.40%) which was marginally significant (F (0.96, 10.78) = [11.75], p = .051). On the ASQ subscales, there was a significant difference between groups for Self-Image (F (2.55,10.05) = [11.42], p = .002), Public Attitudes (F (1.94, 9.66) = [9.04], p=.004), and the total score (F (1.41, 8.54) = [7.42], p = .009), with other school professionals reporting greater stigma toward students with ADHD. Findings indicate that occupational therapists report less stigma toward students with ADHD. Occupational therapists demonstrated a positive but relatively weak bias on ADHD trials on the ADHD-IRAP. In contrast, other professionals who interact with ADHD children (teachers, SLPs, etc) showed a slight negative bias. Other school professionals knew children with ADHD outside of their professional setting more than occupational therapists. Occupational therapists in the school setting are skilled practitioners who work with this student population and can reflect on personal biases that can impact service delivery.



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